The sport of American football has several rules just like any other sport. In a High-School football there are total of 5 officials, or referees (NFL games have 7 officials) that are on the field with the players. Each ‘ref’ has a particular area they focus on, but any ref can spot and call an infraction to the rules called a penalty or foul.
Impress your friends with your football knowledge… The head ‘ref’ or official is the only referee who wears a white hat (all the other officials wear black hats). The head referee is often the most visible official to football fans because he is responsible for announcing all penalties. The head referee is also responsible for determining if the chains should be brought onto the field to measure for a first down.
Penalty marker or flag
A bright-yellow-colored flag that is thrown on the field toward or at the spot of a foul or penalty. For fouls where the spot is unimportant, such as fouls which occur at the snap or during a dead ball, the flag is typically thrown vertically. The flag is wrapped around a weight, such as sand or beans, so that it can be thrown with some distance and accuracy and to ensure it remains in place and not moved by wind. Officials typically carry a second flag in case there are multiple fouls on a play. Officials who run out of flags when they see multiple fouls on a play may drop their hat or a bean bag instead.
A whistle is used to signal a reminder to players that the ball is dead; i.e., that the play has ended or never began.
There are currently 45 different signals that an official can display. Each signal has a body motion that head referee displays to the home side crowd.
This post is still in progress, come back soon for more.